In the year 1532, at the Battle of Cajamarca, 168 Spanish soldiers under the command of the explorer Francisco Pizarro, his brothers, and their indigenous allies successfully captured the Sapa Inca Atahualpa. This victory came after years of preceding exploration and military engagements. The invasion of the Inca Empire by the Spanish.
|Territorial changes||Former Inca lands incorporated into the Spanish Empire|
The Inca army was a multi-ethnic force that was tasked with protecting the sovereignty of the Inca Empire and the Sapa Inca, who served as monarch at that time. An army that had been formed by a loose confederation of peasant fighters was eventually supplanted by one that was made up of professional officers as the Inca Empire expanded.
The Chanka people, also known as the Chanca, are an ethnic Quechua tribe that may be found in Peru, namely in the provinces of Apurimac, Ayacucho, and Lamas. They were adversaries of the Incas and their primary stronghold was at Andahuaylas, which is located in the area that is now known as Apurmac.
The Spanish explorer and conqueror Francisco Pizarro lays a trap on the Inca ruler, Atahualpa, on November 16, 1532. Pizarro, who had fewer than 200 soldiers to fight several thousand, enticed Atahualpa to a feast held in the emperor’s honor and then opened fire on the unarmed Incans. Atahualpa was killed in the ensuing battle.
The Inca Civil War, also known as the Inca Dynastic War, the Inca War of Succession, or, on occasion, the War of the Two Brothers, was fought between Huáscar and Atahualpa, sons of Huayna Capac, over succession to the throne of the Inca Empire.Other names for this conflict include: the War of the Two Brothers; the Inca Dynastic War; and the Inca War of Succession.After the death of Huayna Capac in 1527, the conflict broke out.
The primary force would conduct a frontal assault against the opposing force, while the other two groups would flank the adversary and then come around behind them to launch an assault from the rear. Before engaging in hand-to-hand battle with the adversary, the soldiers utilized ranged weapons in an effort to breach the enemy’s lines and gain an advantage (slings, arrows and short spears).
Although the decline of the Incan Empire can be attributed to a number of factors, such as the introduction of new diseases and technological advances in armament, the adept political maneuvering of the Spanish was a significant contributor to the collapse of this once-mighty empire.
The Inca were able to field vast armies that numbered in the tens or hundreds of thousands and were led by skillful generals and veteran troops. The Spanish were vastly outnumbered by their adversaries, but with to their horses, armor, and weaponry, they were able to gain an advantage that was insurmountable for their foes.
Were the Incas known to practice peace? Before conquering an area, the Incas tried to assimilate its inhabitants peacefully through trade and other diplomatic means. On the other hand, in the event that they encountered opposition, they would integrate the new region by coercion. The harshness of their legislation was unparalleled.
The Incas and the Conquest of Peru by the Spanish
|Who won the civil war?||Atahualpa won the civil war and became the next ruler.|
|Who was the first white man ever seen by the Incas?||The first white man seen by the Incas was a shipwrecked European that had joined their enemies.|
Conquered peoples were forced to adhere to the Inca way of religion, governance, and even artistic expression. The Incas forced their religion, administrative system, and even their art on the peoples they conquered, demanded tribute from them, and even relocated loyal communities (known as mitmaqs) in order to more easily incorporate new regions into their empire.
The only reason combat became required was because these other options failed. During the early stages of Inca warfare, the primary objective was to amass the enemy’s wealth. However, as the Inca grew more powerful and ambitious, they shifted their focus toward establishing long-term territorial control over their neighbors and expanding their sphere of influence across South America.
The Spanish conquistadors led by Francisco Pizarro were responsible for the death of Atahuallpa, the 13th and final emperor of the Inca empire. He was strangled to death. The execution of Atahuallpa, the last free ruling monarch, brought an end to the Inca civilisation after it had existed for three hundred years.
Incan warfare consisted of a series of conquest-oriented operations. They were able to beat and seize control of their smaller neighbors because to their well-organized and disciplined military, which was supported by an infrastructure network consisting of farms, highways, and the government.