What they did have was dirt, rock, and straw and, with these materials, they made their adobe houses in communities called pueblos. Adobe is mud and straw mixed together and dried to make a strong brick-like material. Pueblo peoples stacked these bricks to make the walls of the house.
Native American History for Kids: The Teepee, Longhouse, and Pueblo Homes
Jacal is a traditional adobe house built by the ancestral Pueblo peoples. Slim close-set poles were tied together and filled out with mud, clay and grasses, or adobe bricks were used to make the walls.
Sandstone blocks and adobe were the two main construction elements used to build pueblos. Adobe is a type of building material made by combining water, straw and clay, which is then shaped and allowed to dry. Timber was also a key component in the construction of pueblos, serving as the framework for the homes.
Adobe is mud mixed with small pieces of plant material. Archaeologists often find adobe when they excavate.
In the Southwest, a pueblo is a settlement that has houses made of stone, adobe, and wood. The houses have flat roofs and can be one or more stories tall. Pueblo people have lived in this style of building for more than 1,000 years.
Pueblo people lived in adobe houses known as pueblos, which are multi-story house complexes made of adobe (clay and straw baked into hard bricks) and stone. Each adobe unit was home to one family, like a modern apartment.
In a typical pueblo building, adobe blocks form the walls of each room as well as a central courtyard; buildings can be up to five stories tall. Usually each floor is set back from the floor below, so that a given building resembles a stepped pyramid.
Today, Pueblo people are located primarily in New Mexico. At one time, the Pueblo homeland reached into what is now Colorado and Arizona, where incredible dwellings and trading centers were established at sites such as Chaco Canyon in northwestern New Mexico and Mesa Verde in southwestern Colorado.
What was their clothing like? Women wore cotton dresses called mantas. A manta was a large square cloth that was fastened around one shoulder and then tied at the waist with a sash. In the hot summer the men wore little clothing, usually just a breechcloth.
The largest of these villages, Pueblo Bonito in Chaco Canyon, New Mexico, contained around 700 rooms in five stories; it may have housed as many as 1000 persons. Pueblo buildings are constructed as complex apartments with numerous rooms, often built in strategic defensive positions.
Adobe houses are traditionally built on a solid foundation, constructed from stone, cement, or even seashells. Builders then erect adobe walls by stacking earthen bricks on top of each other. An adobe brick is composed of compacted soil with a small clay consistency.
Construction materials Depending upon availability, Pueblo room blocks are built using either sun-dried adobe or stone masonry, and sometimes both. Adobe is made from a mixture of clay, sand or silt, straw, and water, and is often formed into bricks that are held in place with a clay-based mortar.
The Plains Indians lived in tipis because they were easily disassembled and allowed the nomadic life of following game.
It is one of the oldest continuously occupied settlements in the United States. In addition, one group of Pueblo Indians moved from New Mexico to Texas during the Pueblo Revolt. Today, their descendants live in a pueblo along the Rio Grande in the west part of Texas. The name of this pueblo is Ysleta del Sur.
The Pueblo Indians, who built these communities, are thought to be the descendants of three primary cultures, including the Mogollon, Hohokam, and Ancient Puebloans, with their history tracing back to some 7,000 years.
The Ancient Pueblo people were very good farmers despite the harsh and arid climate. They ate mainly corn, beans, and squash. They knew how to dry their food and could store it for years. Women ground the dried corn into flour, which they made into paper-thin cakes.