The Gabrielinos were hunter-gatherers, and moved from place to place frequently as they gathered food for their families. Gabrielino men hunted deer, rabbits, and small game, and went fishing in the rivers and ocean. Gabrielino women gathered acorns, nuts, beans, and fruits.
Women gathered acorns, cattails, and chia plants to be ground up and made into cakes. Acorns were pounded in stone or wooden mortars (or metates) then boiled in a water-proof basket or in a stone bowl. Other foods included seeds, nuts, fruits and berries, and honey. There were many jobs to be done in a Tongva village.
Perhaps because living was easy for them, the Gabrielino had time to become skilled in crafts. They decorated the articles that they made with shell inlays, and with carving and painting. On Santa Catalina Island, the Gabrielino had a good supply of steatite, a stone also known as soapstone.
In religion, for instance, the Gabrielino were the source of the jimsonweed cult, a widely practiced southern California religion that involved various sacred and esoteric rituals and the drinking of toloache, a hallucinogen made from the jimsonweed (Datura stramonium).
Typical of life by the ocean, seafood like kelp, shark, and clams was abundant. On land, the Tongva also hunted with boomerangs, or makanas, and bows and arrows. This work provided squirrel, rabbit, and deer meat. Women gathered acorns, cattails, and chia plants to be ground up and made into cakes.
It was not a name that the people ever used to refer to themselves. However, it remains a part of every official tribe’s name, either as “Gabrieleño” or “Gabrielino.” Because of the disagreement between tribal groups surrounding usage of the term Tongva, Gabrieleño has been used as a mediating term.
The Hupa had numerous food resources in their territory. They got their meat from deer and elk found in the surrounding forest. Berries and nuts could be taken from many trees and bushes in the forests as well. The Trinity River provided various types of fish such as eel, salmon and sturgeon.
Gabrielino kids enjoyed footraces, swimming, and dice games.
Around 2,000 Tongva people still live in the Los Angeles area, and they are considered to be one of the two most prominent California tribes without recognition, with 2,800 archaeological sites, such as the sacred site of Puvungna, located on what is now Cal State Long Beach.
Lost Treaty Rights And Current Status. The “18 lost treaties” recognized the Tongva but were never adopted. In 1950, under the Eisenhower policy of “Assimilation” of Native American Tribes, the Gabrielino-Tongva were effectively terminated.
Today, the Chumash are estimated to have a population of 5,000 members. Many current members can trace their ancestors to the five islands of Channel Islands National Park.
The Tongva ate a variety of foods. They gathered acorns, nuts, berries, and seeds. They fished for food in the ocean, especially the Tongva who lived on islands. They also hunted deer and small animals such as birds, rabbits, and rodents.
The Tongva language (also known as Gabrielino or Gabrieleño) is an extinct Uto-Aztecan language formerly spoken by the Tongva, a Native American people who live in and around Los Angeles, California. It has not been a language of everyday conversation since the 1940s.
Kiiy, the Gabrieleno-Tongva houses, were made of White Willow and Tule reeds on the mainland, while coastal Kiiy were made of whale bones and reeds.
The Tongva lived all throughout the Los Angeles Basin down to north Orange County and on Catalina and San Clemente islands. Tongva villages were often built near rivers, creeks, and other sources of water. Their biggest village was called Yangna and it sat right where downtown LA sits today, near the Los Angeles River.