Shovelnose and Chinook canoes were both dugouts, created by hollowing out a single log, usually western red cedar. Before the introduction of metal tools, this was accomplished through fire, steam, and the use of wood and stone tools.
In Eastern North America, dugout canoes were typically made from a single log of chestnut or pine. Carefully controlled fires were used to hollow out these logs. The fires were extinguished at intervals to scrape out the burned wood with a wood, shell or stone tools, giving the canoes a flat bottom with straight sides.
Chinook people built canoes out of cedar logs they cut, found as drift logs, or salvaged from the massive old growth forests that pepper the Oregon and Washington coastline. Builders carefully applied fire before they used stone and wood tools to hollow out a log.
For at least a thousand years, the Oneoto and Dakota Indian tribes of the Minnesota River Valley, constructed dugout canoes from large basswood, cottonwood or soft maple tree trunks, for travel on the rivers and lakes in the river valley.
Art & Crafts: The Chinook Indian tribe made large dugout canoes by hollowing out cedar or fir logs. The Chinook tribe used these canoes to travel up and down the sea coast for trading, fishing and hunting, and warfare. The women made tightly woven baskets and hats from spruce roots and grasses.
Canoes were made from bark, animal skins or wood. By far the sturdiest construction, and the most time consuming, if not the most difficult, for American Indians, was the dugout canoe. Making a dugout canoe was a gigantic task requiring considerable organization and planning.
If you choose to lay out and cut your own then set up, anticipate 7-8 hours. Regarding the time to strip up the hull, longer and/or deeper canoes will obviously take more time than shorter, shallow canoes.
The Chinook canoe, also known as the Nootka canoe, had a raised prow which was often decorated with carved figures. These well-crafted canoes, which ranged from fifteen to fifty feet in length, were used in both freshwater and saltwater.
The Chinook tribe lived in plankhouses, also called simply ‘Big Houses’. The plankhouse was constructed from the red cedar trees that were so abundant in their area. The were skilled in splitting slabs from the straight-grained red cedar trees. The houses were built in various sizes.
The Chinook built large cedar plank houses. The cedar plankhouse was the typical permanent dwelling of the Chinook and other coastal Northwest people. The size of these sturdy buildings ranged from approximately 14 x 20 feet to 40 x 100 feet.
The Northeast woodlands, and the tribes of eastern Canada built canoes made from the bark of trees (the birch bark canoe ). Tribes in the Northwest Pacific Coast, California and the Plateau regions built dugout canoes. Some Californian tribes built canoes made from reeds (the tule canoe).
Northern white cedar is absolutely the best wood for canoe ribs and planking. Its light weight, strength, flexibility and rot resistance can not be matched by any other wood.
Native American peoples made their own canoes for use on rivers, lakes, and oceans. The canoes were as long as 20 feet and used for transportation and trade. One type of Native American canoe they made is called a dug out canoe, made from hard wood trees such as oak, birch, chestnut, and cedar.
What were Chinook weapons and tools like in the past? Chinook fishermen used harpoons and nets. Hunters used bows and arrows, and trappers set snares. In war, Chinook men fired their bows or fought with spears and war clubs.
Definition of Chinook 1: a member of an American Indian people of the north shore of the Columbia River at its mouth. 2: a Chinookan language of the Chinook and other nearby peoples. 3 or less commonly chinook. a: a warm moist southwest wind of the coast from Oregon northward.
Because American colonialism severely disrupted Chinook culture, ultimately removing the people to reservations, most information about traditional Chinook life is based on the records of these and other traders and explorers, together with what is known of neighbouring groups.