1. A rare clinical event in which excess insulin is administered, causing profound hypoglycemia to levels below that required for normal brain function, causing anxiety, delirium, convulsions, coma, death.
In 1878, Claude Bernard described hyperglycemia during hemorrhagic shock ; and it is now well known that acute illness or injury may result in hyperglycemia, insulin resistance and glucose intolerance, collectively termed stress hyperglycemia.
Shock has several causes: Low blood volume ( hypovolemic shock ) Inadequate pumping action of the heart ( cardiogenic shock ) Excessive widening of blood vessels ( distributive shock )
The four major types are: obstructive shock. cardiogenic shock. distributive shock. hypovolemic shock.
Diabetic shock occurs when blood sugar levels drop dangerously low. Diabetic shock is not a medical term, but people often use it to describe a state of severe hypoglycemia that requires another person’s help.
Severe hypoglycemia, or insulin shock, is a serious health risk for anyone with diabetes. Also called insulin reaction, as a consequence of too much insulin, it can occur anytime there is an imbalance between the insulin in your system, the amount of food you eat, or your level of physical activity.
In sensing hypoglycemia, the nutritionally deprived brain also stimulates the sympathetic nervous system, leading to neurogenic symptoms such as sweating, palpitations, tremulousness, anxiety, and hunger. These symptoms prompt individuals to ingest food to increase blood sugar levels.
A blood sugar level below 70 mg/dL (3.9 mmol/L) is low and can harm you. A blood sugar level below 54 mg/dL (3.0 mmol/L) is a cause for immediate action. You are at risk for low blood sugar if you have diabetes and are taking any of the following diabetes medicines: Insulin.
METABOLIC CHANGE IN SEPSIS Such overwhelming production of mediators causes many pathological changes in vital organs and systems including metabolic changes. One such metabolic change is hyperglycemia arising from muscle glycolysis and lipolysis, and subsequent gluconeogenesis and glycolysis in the liver[9-12].
Shock involves ineffective tissue perfusion and acute circulatory failure. The shock syndrome is a pathway involving a variety of pathologic processes that may be categorized as four stages: initial, compensatory, progressive, and refractory (Urden, Stacy, & Lough, 2014).
The main types of shock include: Cardiogenic shock (due to heart problems) Hypovolemic shock (caused by too little blood volume) Anaphylactic shock (caused by allergic reaction) Septic shock (due to infections) Neurogenic shock (caused by damage to the nervous system)
The presentation of shock is variable, with some people having only minimal symptoms such as confusion and weakness. While the general signs for all types of shock are low blood pressure, decreased urine output, and confusion, these may not always be present.
18.9A: Types of Shock Hypovolemic Shock. Cardiogenic Shock. Obstructive Shock. Distributive Shock. Septic. Anaphylactic. Neurogenic.
Neurogenic shock is a distributive type of shock resulting in low blood pressure, occasionally with a slowed heart rate, that is attributed to the disruption of the autonomic pathways within the spinal cord. It can occur after damage to the central nervous system, such as spinal cord injury and traumatic brain injury.
In more severe cases of neurogenic shock, you may experience: difficulty breathing. chest pain. weakness from irregular blood circulation. bradycardia, or a slower heart rhythm. faint pulse. cyanosis, or discolored lips and fingers. hypothermia, or decreased body temperature.