Carbon dioxide is linear, while sulphur dioxide is bent (V-shaped). In the carbon dioxide, the two double bonds try to get as far apart as possible, and so the molecule is linear.
CO2 is not trigonal planar, but is linear (O = C = O). It all has to do with its atomic orbital hybridization.
When carbon forms single bonds with other atoms, the shape is tetrahedral. When two carbon atoms form a double bond, the shape is planar, or flat.
Why is CO2 a linear molecule whereas H2O has a v-shaped geometry? This is due to the different numbers of electrons in each molecule and VSEPR (Valence Shell Electron Repulsion) theory. There are only bonding electrons around the carbon which repel equally so the molecule is linear.
Hydrogen Cyanide: In this example, HCN, the Lewis diagram shows carbon at the center with no lone electron pairs. The carbon and nitrogen are bonded through a triple bond which counts as “one electron pair”. Hence the molecule has two electron pairs and is linear.
AB2E: Ozone (O3) Molecules with three electron pairs have a domain geometry that is trigonal planar. Here, the lone pair on the central atom repels the electrons in the two bonds, causing the atom to adopt a bent molecular geometry. Ozone, O3.
Bonding in Carbon Dioxide From the Lewis structure we can see that the carbon in CO2 must make 2 sigma bonds and it has no lone pairs. This atom will be 2sp hybridized with remaining 2px and 2py atomic orbitals. Each oxygen makes 1 sigma bond and also needs 2 orbitals for lone pairs of electrons.
Carbon dioxide, CO2 Because there are 4 bonds, these are all bond pairs. Each double bond uses 2 bond pairs – which are then thought of as a single unit.
quantum-mechanics physical-chemistry atomic-physics orbitals. H2O has a 109.5 degree bond angle, but CO2 has exactly 180 degrees.
The properties of a solid can usually be predicted from the valence and bonding preferences of its constituent atoms. Four main bonding types are discussed here: ionic, covalent, metallic, and molecular. Hydrogen -bonded solids, such as ice, make up another category that is important in a few crystals.
Hybridization of CO2 ( Carbon Dioxide ) Carbon dioxide basically has a sp hybridization type. This type of hybridization occurs as a result of carbon being bound to two other atoms. Bonds can be either two double bonds or one single + one triple bond.
Carbon has four valence electrons, so it can achieve a full outer energy level by forming four covalent bonds. When it bonds only with hydrogen, it forms compounds called hydrocarbons. Carbon can form single, double, or triple covalent bonds with other carbon atoms.
NO2 is a bent molecule; however, when you remove an electron from it, making it NO2+, the molecule becomes linear due to the loss of a lone electron. On the other hand, nitrogen dioxide, NO2, is an AX2E species, and it has an angle of 134 degrees. The additional lone pair on the SF2 molecule makes the angle smaller.
An example of bent molecular geometry that results from tetrahedral electron pair geometry is H2O. The water molecule is so common that it is wise to just memorize that water is a BENT molecule. The oxygen has 6 valence electrons and thus needs 2 more electrons from 2 hydrogen atoms to complete its octet.
The central atom, C, has 3 charge clouds (3 atoms, no lone pairs).