The European and Chinese explorations in the fifteenth century were very different. The two places had very different motivations for exploration, with Europe looking for territory and wealth, and the Chinese searching to establish the power of their country.
They began direct trade in China by sea due to their improved marine technology in the 15th and 16th Century. They were the major exporters of Chinese blue and white wares throughout the 16th Century thus were the first Europeans to be influenced by these porcelains.
Economic reasons for Chinese exploration: Political – Spread Chinese culture. Tribute system – give exotic gifts in return for Chinese protection. Social – Let the world know China is back.
Describe how and why China and Japan reacted to European explorers /traders. This prevented people and foreign ideas from entering and exiting Japan. The Chinese had just driven out the Mongols and didn’t want Europeans to threaten the peace and prosperity that the Ming, the new dynasty, had brought them.
Native peoples of America had no immunity to the diseases that European explorers and colonists brought with them. Diseases such as smallpox, influenza, measles, and even chicken pox proved deadly to American Indians. Europeans were used to these diseases, but Indian people had no resistance to them.
The Portuguese goal of finding a sea route to Asia was finally achieved in a ground-breaking voyage commanded by Vasco da Gama, who reached Calicut in western India in 1498, becoming the first European to reach India. The second voyage to India was dispatched in 1500 under Pedro Álvares Cabral.
Portugal’s maritime routes in the 16th century Thanks to their skills in long-distance navigation and their network of trading posts, the Portuguese took over trading routes linking the Persian Gulf, the African coast and the Western coast of India which were previously controlled by Arab intermediaries.
There are a lot of positive results of Portuguese exploration. Portugal discovered new lands, new sea routes and made better maps of the world. When Vasco de Gama found a new route to India, the Portuguese were able to trade spices and jewels. Portugal got richer because of the Indian trade.
Between 1405 and 1433, Ming China sent out seven gigantic naval expeditions under the command of Zheng He the great eunuch admiral. These expeditions traveled along the Indian Ocean trade routes as far as Arabia and the coast of East Africa, but in 1433, the government suddenly called them off.
The typical Chinese navigational compass was in the form of a magnetic needle floating in a bowl of water. According to Needham, the Chinese in the Song Dynasty and continuing Yuan Dynasty did make use of a dry compass, although this type never became as widely used in China as the wet compass.
The Qing Dynasty fell in 1911, overthrown by a revolution brewing since 1894, when western-educated revolutionary Sun Zhongshan formed the Revive China Society in Hawaii, then Hong Kong. Within weeks the Qing court agreed to the creation of a republic with its top general, Yuan Shikai, as president.
The major Japanese response to European exploration was one of isolation. Between the years 1633 and 1853, Japan was a “locked country” which did not allow Japanese to leave or foreigners to enter. So they allowed very limited amounts of trade to be conducted through the port of Nagasaki in Southern Japan.
European overseas exploration led to the rise of global trade and the European colonial empires, with the contact between the Old World ( Europe, Asia, and Africa) and the New World (the Americas), as well as Australia, producing the Columbian exchange, a wide transfer of plants, animals, food, human populations (
How did Hongwu bring stability to China? He promoted China’s power and prosperity;, restored agricultural lands, and erased all of the Monguls past. He supported the creation of self-supporting agricultural communities. He attempted to lessen the amount of traders.