The Seljuks marched from their homelands in the Aral Sea, first into Khorasan and then into mainland Persia, until eventually conquering Baghdad and eastern Anatolia, before finally settling in Baghdad. The Seljuks defeated the Byzantines at the Battle of Manzikert in 1071 and subsequently captured the majority of Anatolia, wresting it from the control of the Byzantine Empire.
In the 11th century, the Ouz (Ghuzz) Turkic tribes invaded southern Asia and established an empire that comprised Mesopotamia, Syria, Palestine, and most of Iran. The Seljuqs were the dominant military dynasty of the Ouz (Ghuzz) tribes.
So, what exactly was the Persian Empire like? Sculptures of columns from the ancient city of Persepolis, which dates back to the First Persian Empire (Achaemenid Empire). In its heyday, the vast Persian Empire included what is now Iran, Turkey, and Egypt, as well as portions of Pakistan and Afghanistan.
Darius the Great, the fourth king of the Achaemenid Empire, ruled over the Persian Empire at its height, when it stretched from the Caucasus and West Asia to what was then Macedonia (today’s Balkans), the Black Sea, Central Asia, and even into Africa, including parts of Libya and Egypt.Darius the Great reigned over the Persian Empire at its height, when it stretched from the Caucasus and West Asia to what was then Macedonia (today’s
In Ottoman Turkish, the empire was referred to as Devlet-i Alye-yi O s mnye (Devlet-i Alye-yi O s mnye, meaning ‘The Supreme Ottoman State,’ or alternatively as O s mnli Devleti (O s mnli Devleti), which literally translates as ‘
The Great Seljuk Empire was an empire that spanned thousands of years. A division would eventually be established between the eastern and western halves of the empire, with the eastern part located in Merv, in modern Turkmenistan, and the western half based in Rayy (near modern-day Tehran), Isfahan, Baghdad, and Hamadhan.
Finally, in 1194, the Great Seljuk Empire breathed its final gasp of life.Tughril II, the final Great Seljuq Sultan, was killed in combat against the Shah of the emerging Khwarezm Empire, the last Great Seljuq Sultan.It left behind the Sultanate of Rum, which was the final stronghold of the Seljuqs, although it too was facing increasing difficulties.The emergence of the Mongols also had a negative impact on the Seljuqs.
Osman I (1258-1324), a Muslim fighter and ruler of a tiny principality inside the borders of Seljuk Turk land, asserted his independence from the Seljuk sultan somewhere around the year 1290. The Ottoman Empire came into being on this day. (The word Ottoman is derived from Uthman, which is the Arabic version of the name Osman.)
For another 100 years or so, the Great Seljuk Empire managed to hold on to its power, but conflicts with the Ismalian Shiites (Turkish tribes migrating from Central Asia), the Crusaders, and other Turkish tribes migrating from Central Asia caused the empire to finally collapse with the death of Turul III in 1453.
Al-Din Kay-Qubdh I built on the exploits of his father and brother to achieve greatness. From 1221 to 1225, he captured the majority of the Mediterranean littoral, all the way up to the Syrian border.
In 1234, Kaikobad himself died as a result of a poison supplied to him by his son and successor Ghiyass ed-din Kaikhosrau II, who had taken over the throne from Kaikobad’s son and successor.
Rükneddin Mesud or Masud (Persian: ) was the Sultan of Rûm from 1116 until his death in 1156. He was born in the city of Rûm and raised in the city of Rûm. It was under the reign of Masud I that the Alâeddin Mosque in Konya was constructed. According to legend, this structure functioned as the ″Mosque of the Throne″ for the Seljuq Sultans of Rum and is home to their dynastic tomb.
In the event of Kaykaus’ untimely death in 1219 (or 1220), Kayqubad, who had been freed from captivity, succeeded to the throne of the sultanate.
During the year 1284, the new Ilkhan Sultan Ahmad ousted and executed the Seljuq sultan Kaykhusraw III and placed Masud as the new ruler of the country. His successor, Ahmad’s son Arghun, subdivided the remaining Seljuq domains and gave Konya and half of the western side of the kingdom to the ousted Sultan’s two young sons, who lived in the eastern half of the kingdom.
A branch of the Seljuks created their own kingdom in a Tolic (the ultanate of Konya or Rum), which lasted until it was overrun by the Mongols in 1243, when it was defeated by the Mongols. Historically, the Seljuk Turks are recognized as the forefathers of the Western Turks, who are the current population of Turkey, Azerbaijan, and Turkmenistan, among other places.
A massive Allied invasion of the Gallipoli Peninsula in 1915-1916 forced the Turks to fight valiantly and successfully defend their homeland, but by 1918, defeat by invading British and Russian forces, as well as an Arab revolt, had combined to destroy the Ottoman economy and devastate its land, leaving approximately six million people dead and millions more displaced.
Constantinople is a historic city in modern-day Turkey that is currently known as Istanbul. It is the capital of the Ottoman Empire.
The Battle of Köse Da was fought on June 26, 1243, in the defile of Köse Da, which is located between Erzincan and Gümüşhane in modern northeastern Turkey, between the Sultanate of Rum, governed by the Seljuq dynasty, and the Mongol Empire, ruled by the Mongol Empire. The Mongols were victorious by an overwhelming margin.