Jumanos supplied corn, dried squashes, beans, and other produce from the farming villages, in exchange for pelts, meat, and other buffalo products, and foods such as piñon nuts, mesquite beans, and cactus fruits.
A Spanish explorer wrote that the Jumano used a hollow gourd and hot stones to cook their food. They filled the gourd with water and placed hot stones in the water until it boiled. Historians call them the Pueblo Jumano because they lived in villages.
These Puebloan Jumanos were farmers who grew corn, beans and squash for food. They made pottery to store food and seeds in. WWW. Texas Indians.com They also had cotton and they wove cotton cloth for clothes and blankets.
The Jumanos demonstrated rudimentary knowledge of Christianity that they attributed to “the Woman in Blue,” said to be a Spanish Franciscan nun, María de Jesús de Agreda. She is said to have appeared to Indians in present-day Texas and New Mexico through bilocation, although never physically leaving Spain.
Their Customs. When the Jumanos celebrated harvest time, they celebrated with other tribes. They got a special house ready for the guest, but they didn’t come say hello, instead, they went to their house, put their belongings in a stack, and bowed their heads against the wall as a way of welcoming them to their village
The Apache ate a wide variety of food, but their main staple was corn, also called maize, and meat from the buffalo. They also gathered food such as berries and acorns. Another traditional food was roasted agave, which was roasted for many days in a pit. Some Apaches hunted other animals like deer and rabbits.
Their movements were dictated primarily by the availability of food. They obtained this food by a combination of hunting, fishing, and gathering. Bison, deer, and fish, were staples of the Karankawa diet, but a wide variety of animals and plants contributed to their sustenance.
They stored and cooked their food in well-made pottery. The Tigua are famous for their beautiful pottery. The men hunted deer, rabbits, antelope, bear and any other wild game they could find for meat. The women and children would collect wild foods like berries when they were in season.
Which American Indian group were nomads who roamed inland in family bands in summer and gathered into coastal villages led by chiefs in winter? How did Pueblo Jumano people get most of the food they needed and wanted? They dug irrigation systems so they could water crops.
The Jumano built permanent homes made of wood and adobe bricks, which they made by drying clay mud in the sun. They would also make jewelry from copper, coral, and turquoise, which they would also trade. They painted their faces with striped lines and wore clothing and shoes made from buffalo skin.
The Jumanos adapted to their environment by building houses out of mud blocks and drying them in the Sun. They also adapted their environment by hunting and gathering food and planting crops near the Rio Grande.
In addition to bone, pre-contact Jumano used stone such as flint as well as wood to construct the majority of their tools. Everything from a hoe (for so-called “Pueblo” Jumano) to a bow and arrow were made of buffalo, wood, or stone. Metal workign was completely unknown among the Jumano before European contact.
The Jumano may have disappeared by 1750 as a result of warfare, slavery, and infectious diseases brought over by Spanish explorers. As the 17th century came to an end the Spanish were no longer interested in their alliance with the Jumano and moved toward building an alliance with the Caddo in east Texas.
The Jumanos ranged from south of the Rio Grande to the Southern Plains. Within this territory they were essentially nomadic, although there were permanent enclaves at La Junta de los Rios (near present-day Ojinaga, Chihuahua), in the Tompiro Pueblos of New Mexico, and perhaps elsewhere.
Although they impacted people wherever they lived, the people most impacted by the buffalo were the nomadic people of the Great Plains. Tribes like the Arapaho, Cheyenne, Sioux, and Comanche, all depended almost entirely on these great animals for subsistence.
The Jumano Nation is alive and well and is primarily composed of all family blood line. There are other Jumanos in the Ojinaga and Julimes areas and still practice the old traditions of the Jumano Indians.