The main trading partners of the Bay Miwok were probably the Ohlone and the Yokuts. They traded animal hides, baskets, bows and arrows, mortars and pestles for other things they needed like Ohlone mussels, abalone shells, salt, cinnabar, dried abalone, and olivella shells, and Yokut pine nuts and rabbitskin blankets.
Included in other important trade goods imported or exported in Ohlone culture were abalone shells, projectile points, obsidian, dogs, tobacco, hides, bows, baskets, salt, acorns, and fish (Davis, 1974).
Acorns were an important part of the Ohlone diet, as they were for other California Indians. Women gathered the acorns, processed them to remove toxic tannins, and ground them into a fine powder. They collected other plant foods, such as seeds, nuts, fruits, and roots. Men fished and hunted for large and small animals.
“A rough husbandry of the land was practiced, mainly by annually setting of fires to burn-off the old growth in order to get a better yield of seeds—or so the Ohlone told early explorers in San Mateo County.” Their staple diet consisted of crushed acorns, nuts, grass seeds, and berries, although other vegetation,
They traditionally lived in more than 50 independently organized villages and did not view themselves as a distinct group. However, due to their similar languages, they often interacted freely with one another. They survived by hunting, fishing, and gathering acorns and seeds.
They invented clever snares, decoys, and weapons for hunting, and devised advanced methods of preparing all types of acorns that leached away the bitterness and turned them into a highly versatile food staple from which they made flour, bread, soups, and mush.
Manroot, Wild cucumber, Chilicote (Marah macrocarpus): The Ohlone used the pounded root as a detergent. It produces a good lather (Bocek 1984:251). The root of these slender vines is large, often the size of a man’s torso. Cattail (Typha latifolia): For use in creating mats, rope, baskets, etc.
During late spring, grasshoppers were hunted and yellow jacket grubs were served either boiled or roasted. Other types of food the Ohlone collected during the spring season were wild greens such as clover, poppy, miners’ lettuce, milkweed, or tansy-mustard. Some of these greens were either used in salads or cooked.
Animal bones were used for spear heads, knives, awls and needles. Deer antlers were used in weapon making. Tule grass, which grew in the Bay, made fishing boats, duck decoys, hats, and toys. String was used to make structures and tools.
The Ohlone once numbered as many as 15,000 on lands stretching from the San Francisco Bay to Big Sur. But following years of enslavement under the Spanish mission system and, later, persecution by settlers, they are now largely a people in exile.
OhloneBeliefs. htm. Before the Ohlone Indians came into contact with the Spanish, they practiced shamanism (Ohlone). They believed that shamans had the power to heal the sick, to see what illness the victim was afflicted with and who sent it their way (Margolin 130).
The Ohlone people had a rich history believing in animal spirits, but the Spanish came and changed all of that. Most Ohlone Indians became and stayed Catholic. However, some Ohlone Indians still practice their native religion, while others practice a mix of Catholicism and their original religion (Perrigan).
The once federally recognized Muwekma Ohlone Tribe has fought for more than two decades to regain its rights to sovereignty and resources. The once federally recognized Muwekma Ohlone Tribe of the San Francisco Bay Area has fought for more than two decades to regain its rights to sovereignty and resources.
Ohlone comprises eight attested varieties: Awaswas, Chalon, Chochenyo (also known as Chocheño), Karkin, Mutsun, Ramaytush, Rumsen, and Tamyen. Overall, divergence among these languages seems to have been roughly equivalent to that among the languages of the Romance sub-family of Indo-European languages.