Almost all children (99 out of 100) who get all the recommended doses of polio vaccine will be protected from polio. The first polio vaccine was available in the United States in 1955. Thanks to widespread use of polio vaccine, the United States has been polio -free since 1979.
Salk worked incessantly for two-and-a-half years. Salk’s inactivated polio vaccine was the first vaccine for the disease; it came into use in 1955. It is on the World Health Organization’s List of Essential Medicines, the safest and most effective medicines needed in a health system.
The disease had first emerged in the United Sates in 1894, but the first large epidemic happened in 1916 when public health experts recorded 27,000 cases and 6,000 deaths—roughly a third in New York City alone.
The discovery by Karl Landsteiner and Erwin Popper in 1908 that polio was caused by a virus, a discovery made by inoculating macaque monkeys with an extract of nervous tissue from polio victims that was shown to be free of other infectious agents.
Share on Pinterest Polio is caused by the poliovirus. The polio virus usually enters the environment in the feces of someone who is infected. In areas with poor sanitation, the virus easily spreads from feces into the water supply, or, by touch, into food.
Researchers began working on a polio vaccine in the 1930s, but early attempts were unsuccessful. An effective vaccine didn’t come around until 1953, when Jonas Salk introduced his inactivated polio vaccine (IPV).
Polio does still exist, although polio cases have decreased by over 99% since 1988, from an estimated more than 350 000 cases to 22 reported cases in 2017. This reduction is the result of the global effort to eradicate the disease.
Some European countries imported the Salk IPV from the US whereas some other like the Netherlands, Denmark, and Sweden started production of Salk IPV in their own public health production units .
Several key strategies have been outlined for stopping polio transmission: High infant immunization coverage with four doses of oral polio vaccine (OPV) in the first year of life in developing and endemic countries, and routine immunization with OPV and/or IPV elsewhere.
This means that there is no year-round transmission of poliovirus in the United States. Since 1979, no cases of polio have originated in the U.S. However, the virus has been brought into the country by travelers with polio. The last time this happened was in 1993.
The mortality rate for acute paralytic polio ranges from 5–15%. The paralysis can progress for up to one week. Permanent weakness is observed in two-thirds of patients with paralytic poliomyelitis.
Answer: The National Center for Health Statistics estimates that more than 440,000 polio survivors in the United States may be at risk for post- polio syndrome (PPS), a condition that strikes polio survivors decades after they’ve recovered from an attack of the poliomyelitis virus.
As far as we know, these enteroviruses are not zoonotic viruses, that is, they do not leap from animals to humans. Nevertheless, there are other poliovirus strains that do infect animals. An example is the simian poliovirus, which stays within apes and monkeys.
Polio was known to be an infectious disease since Karl Landsteiner and Erwin Popper’s famous experiments in 1908 showed that polio could be transmitted between animals. It is transmitted from human to human, typically through drinking water contaminated with faeces containing the virus.