Pueblo tribes such as the Tewas exchanged surplus corn, cotton textiles, ceramics, and turquoise for the Plains Indians ‘ tallow, salt, buffalo meat, and hides. This new commercial intercourse was based, in part, on the same system of reciprocal gift giving that governed trade among the Indians of eastern North America.
The Pueblo Indians were expert farming people. They raised crops of corn, beans, squash, and sunflowers, as well as cotton and tobacco. Pueblo men also hunted deer, antelope, and small game, while women gathered nuts, fruits, and herbs.
The Pueblo used a lot of natural resources. They used deer for food and cloths Some of the items were mud and straw that were used to make houses. They needed wood for fire and fire was used to cook. They also needed water for a refreshment.
Each of the 70 or more Pueblo villages extant before Spanish colonization was politically autonomous, governed by a council composed of the heads of religious societies. Those societies were centred in the kivas, subterranean ceremonial chambers that also functioned as private clubs and lounging rooms for men.
There are currently 100 Pueblos that are still inhabited, among which Taos, San Ildefonso, Acoma, Zuni, and Hopi are the best-known. Exact numbers of Pueblo peoples are unknown but, in the 21st century, some 35,000 Pueblo are estimated to live in New Mexico and Arizona.
The native languages of today’s Pueblo peoples are grouped into three main language families: Tano, Keres, and Zuni. There are three separate dialects within the Tanoan language: Tewa, Tiwa, and Towa. Tiwa dialect is spoken in Taos, Picuris, Sandia, and Isleta Pueblos.
Pueblo is one of the largest steel-producing cities in the United States, for which reason Pueblo is referred to as the “Steel City”. The Historic Arkansas River Project (HARP) is a riverwalk in the Union Avenue Historic Commercial District, and shows the history of the devastating Pueblo Flood of 1921.
The Pueblo made some of their clothing from plant materials. Bones, teeth, and feathers were used as decorations on clothing. Men wore breechcloths and leggings, a cotton shirt, moccasins and sometimes a short kilt. The Pueblo grew cotton and harvested the cotton blossom to weave cloth.
The history of the modern Pueblo tribes is usually dated from approximately 1600 onward, as Spanish colonial occupation of the North American Southwest began in 1598.
The Pueblo tribe lived in in adobe houses, also known as pueblos, that were well suited to the warm dry climate in which they lived. The Adobe, or pueblo homes, were multi-story houses made of adobe (clay and straw baked into hard bricks).
Corn, beans, and squash were the most important crops. The Ancestral Pueblo people depended on agriculture to sustain them in their more sedentary lifestyle. Corn, beans, and squash were the most important crop items.
Indians of the southwest made bricks out of dirt and straw and dried them in the sun to build their pueblos. Over time, rain and wind would cause the bricks to “melt” away. Wooden posts inside each room supported the roof which was covered with layers of sticks, then grass, mud, and finally plaster.
The Ancient Pueblo people were very good farmers despite the harsh and arid climate. They ate mainly corn, beans, and squash. They knew how to dry their food and could store it for years. Women ground the dried corn into flour, which they made into paper-thin cakes.
The Hopi are a Native American tribe who primarily live on the Hopi Reservation in northeastern Arizona. The Hopi encountered Spaniards in the 16th century, and are historically referred to as Pueblo people, because they lived in villages (pueblos in the Spanish language).
To cover themselves, Pueblo Indian men wore short kilts or breechcloths. Women wore mantas, which were made from cotton and fastened at the right shoulder. Both men and women wore deerskin moccasins on their feet, and women would wear painted moccasins and deerskin shin garments for weddings.