Bryophytes are the group of plants that are the closest extant relative of early terrestrial plants. The first bryophytes (liverworts) most likely appeared in the Ordovician period, about 450 million years ago.
All the analyses indicate that land plants first appeared about 500 million years ago, during the Cambrian period, when the development of multicellular animal species took off.
The earliest known moss fossil is from the early Carboniferous period, about 320 million years ago. Mosses are not well-represented in the fossil record because their soft tissue is not well preserved.
Mosses, liverworts, and hornworts are found throughout the world in a variety of habitats. They flourish particularly well in moist, humid forests, filling many ecological roles.
The earliest known vascular plants come from the Silurian period. Cooksonia is often regarded as the earliest known fossil of a vascular land plant, and dates from just 425 million years ago in the late Early Silurian. It was a small plant, only a few centimetres high.
Fossil records indicate the first gymnosperms (progymnosperms) most likely originated in the Paleozoic era, during the middle Devonian period about 390 million years ago. Following the wet Mississippian and Pennsylvanian periods, which were dominated by giant fern trees, the Permian period was dry.
Plants appeared on Earth 100 million years earlier than scientists previously thought. The evolution of plant life on Earth is fundamental to the history of our planet. It has provided resources and habitats for animals and influenced climate on a global scale.
Colonization of land. Land plants evolved from a group of green algae, perhaps as early as 850 mya, but algae-like plants might have evolved as early as 1 billion years ago.
Angiosperm, Gymnosperm, Vascular seedless, Non vascular.
Hominins first appear by around 6 million years ago, in the Miocene epoch, which ended about 5.3 million years ago. Our evolutionary path takes us through the Pliocene, the Pleistocene, and finally into the Holocene, starting about 12,000 years ago. The Anthropocene would follow the Holocene.
Differences in Biology The rhizoids in mosses are multicellular, but unicellular in hornworts and liverworts. Mosses and hornworts have true stomata (breathing holes) on their sporophytes, but liverworts do not.
Top moss, ( Physcomitrium pyriforme ), also called urn moss, a common species of urn moss formerly known as P. turbinatum. The common name derives from the top-shaped capsules, which open by a small lid at the tip to release the spores.
Liverworts and hornworts can reproduce asexually through the fragmentation of leaves into gemmae that disperse and develop into gametophytes.