Almost all children (99 out of 100) who get all the recommended doses of polio vaccine will be protected from polio. The first polio vaccine was available in the United States in 1955. Thanks to widespread use of polio vaccine, the United States has been polio -free since 1979.
The disease had first emerged in the United Sates in 1894, but the first large epidemic happened in 1916 when public health experts recorded 27,000 cases and 6,000 deaths—roughly a third in New York City alone.
Salk worked incessantly for two-and-a-half years. Salk’s inactivated polio vaccine was the first vaccine for the disease; it came into use in 1955. It is on the World Health Organization’s List of Essential Medicines, the safest and most effective medicines needed in a health system.
Routine poliovirus vaccination of U.S. adults (i.e., persons aged >18 years) is not necessary. Most adults do not need polio vaccine because they were already vaccinated as children and their risk of exposure to polioviruses in the United States is minimal.
Share on Pinterest Polio is caused by the poliovirus. The polio virus usually enters the environment in the feces of someone who is infected. In areas with poor sanitation, the virus easily spreads from feces into the water supply, or, by touch, into food.
The discovery by Karl Landsteiner and Erwin Popper in 1908 that polio was caused by a virus, a discovery made by inoculating macaque monkeys with an extract of nervous tissue from polio victims that was shown to be free of other infectious agents.
Several key strategies have been outlined for stopping polio transmission: High infant immunization coverage with four doses of oral polio vaccine (OPV) in the first year of life in developing and endemic countries, and routine immunization with OPV and/or IPV elsewhere.
Polio does still exist, although polio cases have decreased by over 99% since 1988, from an estimated more than 350 000 cases to 22 reported cases in 2017. This reduction is the result of the global effort to eradicate the disease.
Researchers began working on a polio vaccine in the 1930s, but early attempts were unsuccessful. An effective vaccine didn’t come around until 1953, when Jonas Salk introduced his inactivated polio vaccine (IPV).
Some European countries imported the Salk IPV from the US whereas some other like the Netherlands, Denmark, and Sweden started production of Salk IPV in their own public health production units .
The 1954 field trials that followed, the largest in U.S. history at the time, were led by Salk’s former University of Michigan colleague, Dr. Thomas Francis, Jr. In the late 1950s, Polish-born physician and virologist Albert Sabin (1906-1993) tested an oral polio vaccine (OPV) he had created from a weakened live virus.
It is not known how long people who received IPV will be immune to poliovirus, but they are most likely protected for many years after a complete series of IPV.
No, thanks to a successful vaccination program, the United States has been polio -free for more than 30 years, but the disease still occurs in other parts of the world. It would only take one person with polio traveling from another country to bring polio back to the United States.
For all these indications of OPV, the upper age limit is set as 5 years. In the United States currently only IPV is used as OPV is not totally safe.