The Kickapoo people ( Kickapoo: Kiikaapoa or Kiikaapoi; Spanish: Kikapú) are an Algonquian-speaking Native American and Indigenous Mexican tribe, originating in the region south of the Great Lakes.
The Kickapoo Indians, an Algonkian-speaking group of fewer than 1,000 individuals scattered across Texas, Oklahoma, Kansas, and northern Mexico, are the remnants of a larger tribe that once lived in the central Great Lakes region.
1a: an Indian people originally of Wisconsin but now living in Oklahoma and Chihuahua, Mexico. b: a member of such people. 2: a dialect of Fox.
Fiercely independent, many Kickapoo people fled all the way to Mexico rather than surrender to the Americans. Of those that went to Mexico, approximately half returned to the United States and were sent to Indian Territory in Oklahoma.
The Kickapoo, meaning “those who walk the earth” or “he who moves here and there,” are grouped with other tribes in the Algonquian linguistic lineage, and were situated in what A. M. Gibson refers to as the “Algonquian heartland” (1963:3).
Religious practice is organized around sacred bundles, misaami, for clans and herbal societies. The religion is protected and practiced almost fanatically among the Mexican Kickapoo, whereas the Kansas Kickapoo have been strongly affected by Christianity.
The Kickapoo tribe’s staple food was corn. Kickapoo women raised corn and baked cornbread called pugna. Kickapoo men hunted deer and small game, and sometimes went fishing in the river. Here is a website with more information about Indian corn traditions.
WELCOME TO THE KICKAPOO TRADITIONAL TRIBE OF TEXAS The KTTT Reservation is located by the Rio Grande on the US-Mexico border in western Maverick County. It is just south of Eagle Pass, Texas as part of the Rosita Valley community.
The French established New France in the 1600’s and established trading links with the tribe. The Kickapoo were allies of the French during the violent Beaver Wars (1640 – 1701) and the long running French and Indian Wars (1688-1763).
Kickapoo Tribe in Kansas Selects Lester Randall as New Leader.
They were a Woodland tribe, speaking an Algonquian language, and were related to the Sac and Fox. There, in exchange for protecting their northern borders, the Mexican government gave the tribe a land grant and eventually placed them at Nacimiento. Other displaced Kickapoo settled in two villages in Indian Territory.
The Kickapoo built wooden, bark covered structures for houses. These houses are called wickiups or wigwams. They raised crops, gathered fruits and nuts when in season, fished the rivers and hunted deer, bear and small game. Wood, gathered from the forests provided material for many of the tools and implements.
In the 21st century, the Comanche Nation has 17,000 members, around 7,000 of whom reside in tribal jurisdictional areas around Lawton, Fort Sill, and the surrounding areas of southwestern Oklahoma.
Kickapoo roots can be found in the Great Lakes region, and were first mentioned in Lower Michigan in the 1600s. By 1654, French explorers identified the Kickapoo, along with the Sauk, Fox and Potawatomi tribes, in southeast Wisconsin, having moved due to the heavy Iroquois influence in the east.
The Potawatomi continued to ally themselves with the French, as did other tribes from Wisconsin and the Great Lakes region. They fought in many famous battles of the war such as Braddock’s Defeat in Pennsylvania in 1755 and the infamous Massacre of Fort William Henry in New York in 1757.